As a quark/neutron developer I have to stand up neutron servers all the time. The way that openstack prefers this be done is with devstack. This is really great and cool if you want to deal with the whole stack and watch how the services interact. If you just want to develop your plugin for Neutron this is quite a bit more than overkill.

The OpenStack community is, rightfully so, pot-committed with their auth solution keystone. This can be seen by clients having --help outputs like:

[code lang=text]
$ neutron –help

–os-auth-strategy <auth-strategy>
DEPRECATED! Only keystone is supported.


This means that if you wish to be a simple, no-nonsense neutron developer and make use of the clients you’ll need to stand up keystone. Despite having done such a thing multiple times I still think it’s a pain in the ass. It’s simply a fact of life that OpenStack is somewhat complicated, maybe needlessly so, and abandoning support for ease-of-use solutions like noauth is a big reason for that.

We forked the client awhile ago to add auth extensions, and because of that noauth is now supported in the client. Now developing for neutron is much more accessible for everyone.

It’s these little things that make open-source development — open.

If you’d like the OpenStack community to embrace the mentality of ease-of-entry, and more openness please show your support in getting these auth extensions upstream.

How to Use noauth

Using noauth is quite simple.

[code lang=text]
neutron –os-auth-strategy noauth –os-url <service endpoint> COMMAND

Some examples:

List networks

[code lang=text]
neutron –os-auth-strategy noauth –os-url http://localhost:9696/v2.0 net-list

Create a network

[code lang=text]
neutron –os-auth-strategy noauth –os-url http://localhost:9696/v2.0 net-create my_nets –tenant-id me

Because you’re doing noauth you’ll need to pass in the tenant-id. This isn’t a big deal though because you can make up whatever you want!

If more examples are necessary just comment.

Installation of this client is very similar to the existing steps to install OpenStack clients, but I will put my methods of doing it here for quick reference.

Quick Install Steps (the TL;DR)

This will create a new directory, install the client and extensions, as well as give you a little file to start working on for the profile.

If you want to be safe use this to install into a virtualenv:

[code lang=text]
mkdir neutronclient && cd neutronclient
virtualenv –prompt='(neutronclient)' .venv
source .venv/bin/activate
pip install rackspace-neutronclient

If you don’t want to be safe and fill your system with random things:

[code lang=text]
sudo pip install rackspace-neutronclient

Make edits to the neutron-profile file you just downloaded and you should be set to go.

Installing the Client with Extensions

Assuming you’re in a virtualenv, which I highly recommend, you can just run these commands without using sudo:

[code lang=text]
pip install rackspace-neutronclient

Using the client

Because we didn’t rename the binary installed by the package the client will still be named neutron. This may cause some issues (see Troubleshooting).

For these examples os-auth-url needs to be given.

Example: Creating a network

[code lang=text]
neutron –os-auth-url –os-auth-strategy rackspace –os-username USERNAME –os-password API_KEY net-create test_net_name

Example: Listing Networks

[code lang=text]
neutron –os-auth-url –os-auth-strategy rackspace –os-username USERNAME –os-password API_KEY net-list

Using the client with Environment Args

If you don’t want to pass the arguments to the client as above you may also put all that information into your environment. This is very similar to the way it works with the nova client.

Create a new file or put the following into your ~/.bash_profile:

[code lang=text]
export OS_AUTH_URL=
export OS_AUTH_STRATEGY=rackspace
export OS_USERNAME=<username>
export OS_TENANT_NAME=<tenant_id>
export OS_PROJECT_ID=<tenant_id>
export OS_PASSWORD=<api_key>
export OS_NO_CACHE=1

GOTCHA: OS_AUTH_STRATEGY entry is different than OS_AUTH_SYSTEM.

Then source the file (or ~/.bash_profile). You should now be able to do the above commands like so:

Example: Creating a network

[code lang=text]
neutron net-create test_net_name

Example: Listing Networks

[code lang=text]
neutron net-list

Using the Client with supernova

The instructions on how to do this were taken from here. If you’ve never used supernova before:

  1. You really should
  2. You should read how to use it before continuing

So you’re a supernova expert now? Ok. You should have a .supernova file. Insert into that file a new section like so (note: this is the most of the above script without the exports):

[code lang=text]

The relevant part is the OS_EXECUTABLE entry.

GOTCHA: OS_AUTH_STRATEGY entry is different than OS_AUTH_SYSTEM.

You should now be able to use supernova.

Example: Creating a network

[code lang=text]
supernova neutron-dfw net-create test_net_name

Example: Listing Networks

[code lang=text]
supernova neutron-dfw net-list


The client is upgraded often, so if you’re running into any troubles the first thing you want to do is (prefix sudo if necessary):

[code lang=text]
pip install –upgrade rackspace-neutronclient

Otherwise, a vast majority of the problems encountered are due to having python-neutronclient (upstream client) and rackspace-python-neutronclient (forked client) installed at the same time.

If you are having any problems first try the following and reinstall using the above instructions:

[code lang=text]
pip uninstall -y python-neutronclient
pip uninstall -y rackspace-neutronclient
pip uninstall -y rackspace-auth-neutronclientext

When both are installed, what is happening?

Because the forked client uses the exact code as the upstream code they are placed into the site-packages (libs) in the same place. The one installed last will be what is used. Even more troublesome is that if you uninstall one of the clients you are removing code that both depend on. Always uninstall both if having problems.

Our neutron plugin quark accepts many drivers and will use however many that are configured at the same time. Quark currently has no default working configuration in which it can be tested.

This setup will create a neutron server that really doesn’t do anything, but it will not require any other services to run! It also assumes that you have a mysql server configured. If you don’t want to use mysql you can change the sqlalchemy connection string in the neutron.conf provided at the end of the post.

Installing the Packages

First thing we need to do is download the code somewhere and install it. The things we really need to install are:

Create a directory somewhere. This will be where we install all the packages. We will be using virtualenv because we’re good python developers, aren’t we?

[code lang=text]
cd my_directory_of_choice
virtualenv –prompt='(quark)' .venv
source .venv/bin/activate

Your shell prompt should, at least if you’re using bash, have (quark) in front now.

The rest of this is pretty easy. Since we’re looking to develop quark/neutron we will need source and not packages.

[code lang=text]
git clone && cd neutron && python develop
git clone && cd quark && python develop

If you run pip freeze you should see some references to neutron and quark in there. There will most likely be a bunch of other packages installed that are dependencies for neutron or quark.

Configuration Details

Make a configuration directory. I call mine etc for giggles. See the full file at the end of this to copy-pasta.

My default testing configuration uses our unmanaged driver. This driver is essentially a noop driver and doesn’t require any extra software to be installed to use quark. Caveat: because it is noop you will have no connectivity if placed into an environment.

Put the following configuration into your neutron.conf (I usually put it at the bottom so the config grouping doesn’t get confused).

[code lang=text]


  • set the core_plugin value in the neutron.conf to quark.plugin.Plugin.
  • setting the auth_strategy to noauth is very helpful especially if you are using wafflehaus.try_context to fake out DB connections

Creating the Database

You’ll need to setup a database (probably mysql). Then modify your neutron.conf with the appropriate connection string (see this). To create the initial quark database you need to run:

[code lang=text]
quark-db-manage –config-file <path-to>neutron.conf upgrade head

Creating the Default Network Artifacts

This resty call will create the mac address ranges for this simple setup:

[code lang=text]
POST /v2.0/mac_address_ranges.json -d '{"mac_address_range": {"cidr" : "AA:BB:CC", "tenant_id": "provider"}}'

And thisresty call will create the public network:

[code lang=text]
POST /v2.0/networks -d '{"network": {"id": "00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000", "tenant_id": "provider", "name": "public"}}'

Finally you will need to make this resty call to make a subnet.

[code lang=text]
POST /v2.0/subnets -d '{"subnet": {"network_id": "00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000", "segment_id": "blah", "cidr": "", "tenant_id": "derp", "ip_version": "4"}}'

Isolated (tenant owned) networks are currently not supported in this configuration. A more operative driver is necessary. There is an NVP/NSX driver included with quark but it requires standing up a NVP/NSX Controller. Doing such a thing is well beyond the scope of this post.

Running Neutron

Then to run the neutron server locally you run the command (preferably in a virtualenv):

[code lang=text]
neutron-server –config-dir /home/jhammond/quark_server/etc

Usage and Initial Smoke Test

Some useful tidbits of information about how we’ve changed how things work in quark:

  • to support cells we had to add segment_id to subnets on provider networks
  • ports created on provider networks require a segment_id as well
  • during testing this value can be anything as long as they match

This script uses resty because I dislike curl. Note the segment id in the POST subnets and POST ports.

[code lang=text]
source ~/bin/resty/resty -W $endpoint -H "Content-type: application/json"

subnet=`POST /subnets -d '{"subnet": {"network_id": "'$net_id'", "tenant_id": "'$tenant'", "cidr": "", "ip_version": 4, "segment_id":

subnet_id=`echo $subnet | python -c 'import sys, json; print json.load(sys.stdin)["subnet"]["id"]'`
echo "Made subnet $subnet_id"

port=`POST /ports -d '{"port": {"tenant_id": "'$tenant'", "name": "weeble", "network_id": "'$net_id'", "segment_id": "test", "fixed_ips": [{"ip_address":
"", "subnet_id": "'$subnet_id'"}]}}'`

port_id=`echo $port | python -c 'import sys, json; print json.load(sys.stdin)["port"]["id"]'`
echo "Made port $port_id"

DELETE /ports/$port_id
DELETE /subnets/$subnet_id
GET /networks

My etc Contents

[code lang=text]

Full neutron.conf

Fill out the database connection info. If you remove the database info completely sqlalchemy will attempt to connect to a mysql server with the following connection string:


That may work for you, but you should probably change it.

[code lang=text]
lock_path = $state_path/lock
core_plugin = quark.plugin.Plugin
auth_strategy = noauth
fake_rabbit = true
rpc_backend = fake

connection = mysql://db_user:db_password@
reconnect_interval = 5
auto_create_schema = False
min_pool_size = 100
max_pool_size = 500
max_overflow = 500

default_net_strategy='{"00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000": {"bridge": "publicnet"}, "11111111-1111-1111-1111-111111111111": {"bridge": "servicenet"}}'
# IPAM recycling interval, in seconds
ipam_reuse_after= 300
show_subnet_ip_policy_id = False
show_allocation_pools = True
pessimistic_connection_pooling = True
environment_capabilities = ""


TypeError: %d format: a number is required, not NoneType

This is caused by oslo_messaging and rpc functions I do not use. Ensure you have the config variable rpc_backend = fake. This will disable that feature.

Running the Quark Unit Tests

We use tox to run the unit tests. A gotcha with quark is that it has assumed configurations for local mysql DB testing (tox -e mysql). If your local DB doesn’t match these assumptions they will fail.

The following will allow those to work:

[code lang=text]
QUARK_MYSQL_TESTS_URL="mysql://user:password@localhost/quark_functional_tests" tox -e mysql

This will produce a lot of sqlalchemy output. I use this little snippet to keep the output to something sane:

QUARK_MYSQL_TESTS_URL=&quot;mysql://user:password@localhost/quark_functional_tests&quot; tox -e mysql 2&gt;&amp;1 &gt;/dev/null | grep -B 25 'end captured stdout'Getting OpenStack neutron+quark Working Locally

For many reasons we’ve found it necessary to upload a fork of python-neutronclient. I do this so rarely that I always forget how to do it and this post is here to remind me. Hopefully other people can get some help from this.

Changing up the setup.cfg

Because this is a fork we need to change a couple things (otherwise it won’t be a fork anymore). The biggest things to change are the name, author, author-email, and home-page.

[code lang=text]
name = rackspace-python-neutronclient
author = Rackspace
author-email =
home-page =

Commit these changes and push to whatever branch you need to. I push here.

Preventing the PBR “git installed?” Problem

This is caused by looking for the wrong distribution name. Simply modify python-neutronclient to rackspace-python-neutronclient:

[code lang=text]
target = 'rackspace-python-neutronclient'
__version__ = pbr.version.VersionInfo(target).version_string()

Setting the Version with Tags (no longer necessary)

This used to be the only known way to get sdist to populate the version in PKG-INFO. It is now recommended to set the version with an environment variable passed during the upload step. This is here just in case that trick stops working.

When you attempt to upload to pypi it fails with random reasons. It appears that some part of the setup process requires for there to be a tag on the commit you’re currently on.

Create a tag with the version using a X.Y.Z format:

[code lang=text]
git tag -a 2.4.1 -m "Rackspace OpenStack Network Client"

Now upload to pypitest then pypi

If this part is confusing check out this guide on pypiy before continuing. I assume by this point you have pypitest and pypi setup as target repositories.

If your tag is setup correctly all you should need to do is run the following:

[code lang=text]
PBR_VERSION=x.y.z python sdist upload -r pypitest

You should be able to goto testpypi and find your package at this point. If the version looks like what you want then you can continue to upload to the real pypi. At one point I had weird additional things appended to my version. The solution to this was to delete the tag, git tag -d, recreate it as above, then upload it again to pypitest.

To upload to pypi run:

[code lang=text]
PBR_VERSION=x.y.z python sdist upload -r pypi

That should be it!

Versioning Silliness

Because of the way that pypi works, the version that you choose during the upload step must be different than any version you have ever loaded. There is no known way to get beyond this only-append feature of pypi.

If anyone knows how to get beyond this please leave a comment. It is really annoying.

(Update) The Real Problem and Solution

While creating the fork of the python-neutronclient we ran into this problem again. We found that it was simply that the that was being used was looking for the wrong client. It was a problem with the distribution and not the installation.

I made a post about it.

If you run into this problem this may not be a solution anymore!

Old Solution

I was having a problem with an application I just uploaded to pypi. After I pip installed it to my system I got this error when I ran it:

[code lang=”text”]
$ neutron –version
Traceback (most recent call last):
File &quot;/usr/local/bin/neutron&quot;, line 6, in &lt;module&gt;
from import main
File &quot;/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/neutronclient/;, line 73, in &lt;module&gt;
from neutronclient.version import __version__
File &quot;/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/neutronclient/;, line 22, in &lt;module&gt;
__version__ = pbr.version.VersionInfo('python-neutronclient').version_string()
File &quot;/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/pbr/;, line 78, in version_string
for part in self.release_string().split('.'):
File &quot;/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/pbr/;, line 70, in release_string
self.release = self._get_version_from_pkg_resources()
File &quot;/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/pbr/;, line 62, in _get_version_from_pkg_resources
return packaging.get_version(self.package)
File &quot;/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/pbr/;, line 870, in get_version
raise Exception(&quot;Versioning for this project requires either an sdist&quot;
Exception: Versioning for this project requires either an sdist tarball, or access to an upstream git repository. Are you sure that git is installed?

It was a weird error and I quickly learned that it was because pbr expects the git tag to have a v in it. Such as v2.3.7. I provided 2.3.7 and that is what caused the bug.

I simply made a new tag (git tag -a v.2.3.7 -m "yey version") and uploaded to pypi (python sdist upload -r pypi).
Problem with pbr and “sdist tarball”

You need some machine (vm or instance) that has at least 4GB of RAM. 8GB is much better. I will assume you just booted a machine and have root, and nothing else.

Installing Devstack

  • I prefer to make an account (my own) and run devstack as that account (some say to make a stack account, it’s the same thing)
  • adduser herpderp &amp;&amp; adduser herpderp sudo &amp;&amp; apt-get update &amp;&amp; apt-get install git &amp;&amp; exit
  • Log back into the machine as your user; herpderp in this case
  • git clone
  • cd devstack
  • create a new file called localrc with the contents:

[code lang=text]
# Originally from
# Misc

# Enable Logging


# Pre-requisite

# Horizon (always use the trunk)

# Nova

# Glance

# Neutron

# Cinder

# Tempest

  • ./

Using Devstack

  • Devstack runs inside of a screen session which you access using:
    screen -r
  • Basic screen usage is to hit the escape sequence then some key; the default escape sequence is ctrl+a:
    Example: ctrl+a let go of keys then
  • To move between the many windows in the devstack screen use:
    ctrl+a then " (that’s double quote, or shift+’)


  • devstack provides and (or; I personally don’t have a lot of luck with these and just recreate the whole machine